Here is a picture from "Securi-Tay 2020: Offensive Tradecraft - Defence Evasion" by - Paul Laîné which briefly sums up the technologies used by AVs to detect malware

We as attackers have to find ways to bypass and hide these detections.

I would also like to add a couple more things

  • Sandboxing: Trigger payload in a controlled environment to track heuristic behaviors and flag known malware behavior

  • Data Mining: Uses a known data set like virustotal to make algorithms to detect AV or just to build signatures to flag for

  • In memory scanning: periodically scans or scans executable regions for malware in real time to detect malware

  • Library load events

  • Kernel callbacks

  • EtwTi Kernel-mode event provider

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